INDRAJEET SINGH*1, NARESH SHARMA2
Cite this article as: Singh I, Sharma N. Dengue and Chikungunya Fever: Oral Manifestations. Int Healthc Res J. 2019;3(4):141-143. https://doi.org/10.26440/IHRJ/0304.07259
1. BDS, Private Practitioner, Greater Noida
2. BDS, Private Practitioner, Bulandshehr
House Number 1357
The vector borne diseases of dengue and chikungunya mainly affect the African and South Asian countries. Its prevalence increases in the summer and monsoon seasons due to an increase in breeding sites and External Incubation Period (EIP) of the virus. Primarily caused by an infectious bite of the Aedes aegypti female mosquito, this disease has a variety of systemic signs and symptoms. However, the oral manifesatations might be ignored. This review aims to enlightens the healthcare researchers with knowledge regarding the oral manifestations of dengue and chikungunya.
KEYWORDS: Dengue, Chikungunya, Oral, Manifestations, Ulcer, Gingival Bleeding.
Having being ignored for many years, the incidence of dengue and chikungunya has increased over the years so much so that the disease has become an international public health concern.1 This can be seen from the fact that while only 9 countries experienced dengue epidemics before the year 1970, dengue in particular is now an endemic in about 100 countries.2 The fact increasing the incidence of disease that dengue and chikungunya is that affected countries face multiple public health problems and hence, are unable to completely focus their attention to one specific disease due to a number of constraints (finances, manpower, resources, etc).
In addition to that, the viral diseases of dengue and chikungunya are affected by various Dengue and chikungunya are driven by complex interactions among host, vector and virus that are influenced by climatic factors. It has been reported that environmental factors like temperature, precipitation and rainfall can affect the External Incubation Period(EIP) of the virus and increase the incidence of vector borne diseases.3
India receives approximately 75% of its total rainfall during June to September(southwest monsoon period). This rainfall provides ample breeding habitats for Ae. Aegypti (causative agent for the disease), which leads to high vector densities which are difficult to control.4 This review paper provides information about the etiogenesis, systemic factors and oral manifestations of dengue and chikungunya.
ETIOPATHOGENESIS OF DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA
Dengue: This virus is transmitted in humans by female Aedes (Ae.) mosquitoes which belongs to the subgenus Stegomyia. It has been reported that Ae. aegypti has been the most important epidemic vector in the tropical and subtropical regions for this disease. Other species such as Ae. albopictus, Ae. polynesiensis, member of Ae. scutellaris complex along with and Ae. niveus have been documented to play a role as secondary vectors for dengue. Studies have reported that Ae. niveus is considered only as a sylvatic vector.5
Chikungunya: This viral disease of the genus Alphavirus is transmitted to humans through infected mosquitoes (Primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus).6 This virus was first recognized as a human pathogen during the 1950s in Africa, following which cases have been reported in many countries in the African and Asian continent.7
CLINICAL SYMPTOMS OF DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA
Dengue: As per the World Health Organization (WHO) 2011 case definition, dengue is suspected in a person with high fever and two of the following signs/symptoms:
Chikungunya: Symptoms start abruptly with fever (temperature usually 138.9 degree Celsius). The fever typically lasts from a few days up to 2 weeks and its nature can be biphasic. After the onset of fever, a majority of infected persons develop severe along with often debilitating polyarthralgias. The joint pain is usually symmetric in nature and mostly occurs in wrists, elbows, fingers, knees, and ankles with the ability to affect more-proximal joints. Arthritis with joint swelling can also occur. Another symptom is rash, which is variable between patients.10
ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA
Dengue: Various authors have the documented the following oral manifestations of dengue. The list is exhaustive, but not limited to:
Chikungunya: The clinical manifestations are as follows:
In light of the above-mentioned oral manifestations of dengue and chikungunya, it is important that attention be paid to its oral manifestations so that a dentist can address those lesions, or atleast provide symptomatic relief for the same. An oral checkup of such patients can also help in providing treatment for the same.
© Indrajeet Singh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY-NC 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the use is not commercial and the original author and source are cited.