Depression Among Delivery Agents and its Determinants due to the COVID-19 Pandemic

  • Sadaf Antoo
  • Afreen Jan
Keywords: COVID-19, Depression, Questionnaire

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of the COVID-19 Pandemic has led to depression and anxiety in many people.
AIM: To assess depression and its determinants among delivery agents in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab State, India.
MATERIALS AND METHOD: The present study was online, cross sectional in nature and was conducted among 1248 delivery agents. The level of depression was assessed using a modified version of the Centre for Epidemiological studies- Depression scale (CES-D). Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and student’s independent t-test followed by the modified Bonferroni post-hoc test applied using SPSS version 21.0.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of depression was found to be 53.7%; Most of the agents belonged to the lower class (59.3%) and Lower Middle Class (36.1%) group. The highest percentage of depression was observed as a result of mortgage (91.3%, non-significant), followed by the fear of losing their job (88.8%) due to the COVID-19 pandemic (p=0.03), and fear of getting COVID-19 (85.9%, non-significant difference). Delivery agents having their own transport seemed to have the lowest depression (26.7%, p=0.04).
CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the present study, governmental and industrial policies towards the benefit of the delivery agents is advised and during these testing times, assurance of job security and paid leaves in case of contracting COVID-19 should be beneficial.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Sadaf Antoo

Resident, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry, SKIMS Medical College and Hospital, Bemina Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir

Afreen Jan

PG Student,  Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, ITS CDSR Ghaziabad; Senior Research Fellow at ICMR, Delhi

References

WHO. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on jobs and incomes in G20 economies. (Online PDF). Available from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---cabinet/documents/publication/wcms_756331.pdf. [Last Accessed on 15th January, 2021]

Huremović D. Social Distancing, Quarantine, and Isolation. In: Huremović D., editor. Psychiatry of Pandemics. Springer International Publishing; 2019. pp. 85–94.

Al Omari O, Al Sabei S, Al Rawajfah O, Sharour LA, Aljohani K, Alomari K, et al. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Youth at the Time of COVID-19: An Online Cross-Sectional Multicountry Study. Depression Research and Treatment 2020 ;2020: 8887727. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8887727

Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet. 2020. 14;395(10227):912–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8.

Hussien G, Tesfaye M, Hiko D, Fekadu H. Assessment of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Depression among Adults in Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, South West Ethiopia. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. J Depress Anxiety. 2017;6(1):1000260. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-1044.1000260

Ahmed MT, Jadhav J, Vishwanatha. Prevalence of Depression among the Farmers and its Determinants: A Cross Sectional Study. Natl J Community Med. 2019;10(8):466-9.

Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1977;1:385–401

Akanksha R, Vikas K, Singh A, Pannalal, A Cross‑Sectional Study of Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Professional Cab Drivers in New Delhi. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2019; 23: 48-53. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_158_18

Kaul S, Gupta AK, Sarkar T, Ahsan SK, Singh NP. Substance abuse and depression among auto-rickshaw drivers: A study from the national capital region of Delhi, India. Indian J Med Spec 2019;10:143-8. https://doi.org/10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_64_19

Bueno-Notivol J, Gracia-García P, Olaya B, Lasheras I, López-Antón R, Santabárbarac J. Int J Clin Health Psychol. 2021; 21(1): 100196. 10.1016/j.ijchp.2020.07.007

Amit N, Ismail R, Zumrah AR, Nizah MAM, Muda TEAT, Meng ECT, et al. Relationship Between Debt and Depression, Anxiety, Stress, or Suicide Ideation in Asia: A Systematic Review. Front Psychol. 2020; 11: 1336. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01336

Sathyanarayana Rao T S, Gowda MR, Ramachandran K, Andrade C. Prevention of farmer suicides: Greater need for state role than for a mental health professional's role. Indian J Psychiatry. 2017;59:3-5.

Mahmud MS, Talukder MU, Rahman SM. Does ‘Fear of COVID-19’ trigger future career anxiety? An empirical investigation considering depression from COVID-19 as a mediator. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2020:1-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020935488.

CITATION
DOI: 10.26440/IHRJ/0501.04401
Published: 2021-04-27
How to Cite
1.
Sadaf Antoo, Afreen Jan. Depression Among Delivery Agents and its Determinants due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. IHRJ [Internet]. 2021Apr.27 [cited 2021May13];5(1):OR1-OR4. Available from: https://ihrjournal.com/ihrj/article/view/401
Section
Original Research(s)