PURPOSE: The present review was conducted to elaborate Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and the role of dentist in its diagnoses and management.
METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed in the electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google scholar. A total of 94 relevant peer reviewed articles were retrieved and 42 were included in the present review.
RESULTS: OSA can be fairly diagnosed by dentists while the patient has come for dental check-up. But insufficient knowledge and awareness among dentists about the diagnostic and treatment protocol of this under-diagnosed condition. It has also proven to be one of the underlying cause of many like diseases like cardiovascular problems, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. To the rescue, dental sleep medicine is gaining enormous attention. In the lieu of the above context ‘American Dental Association (ADA)’ has adopted a policy that focuses on outlines various diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities that can be carried out by dentist for management of OSA.
CONCLUSION: It can be concluded since there is no sufficient evidence for the prevalence of OSA in developing countries like India, it is needed to create awareness and implement appropriate diagnostic and preventive measures for the same.
Riley R, Guilleminault C, Powell N, Simmons FB. Palatopharyngoplasty failure, cephalometric roentgenograms, and obstructive sleep apnea. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.1985;93(2):240-44.
Grandner MA. Sleep, Health, and Society. Sleep Med Clin.2016;12(1):1-22.
Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D et al. Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: a joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. 2015; Sleep 38(6):843–44
Sutton DA, Moldofsky H, Badley EM. Insomnia and health problems in Canadians. Sleep. 2001; 24:665–70.
Groeger JA, Zijlstra FR, Dijk DJ. Sleep quantity, sleep difficulties and their perceived consequences in a representative sample of some 2000 British adults. J Sleep Res. 2004; 13:359–71.
Kronholm E, Partonen T, Laatikainen T et al. Trends in self-reported sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finland from 1972 to 2005: a comparative review and re-analysis of Finnish population samples. J Sleep Res. 2008; 17:54–62.
Stranges S, Dorn JM, Shipley MJ, Kandala NB, Trevisan M, Miller MA et al. Correlates of short and long sleep duration: a cross-cultural comparison between the United Kingdom and the United States: the Whitehall II Study and the Western New York Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2015;168(12):1353-64.
Knutson KL, Van Cauter E, Rathouz PJ, DeLeire T, Lauderdale DS. Trends in the prevalence of short sleepers in the USA: 1975–2006. Sleep. 2010; 33:37–45.
Stranges S, Tigbe W, Gómez-Olivé FX, Thorogood M, Kandala NB. Sleep problems:an emerging global epidemic? Findings from the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE study among more than 40,000 older adults from 8 countries across Africa and Asia. Sleep. 2012; 35(8):1173-81.
Li SX, Chan NY, Man Yu MW, Lam SP, Zhang J, Yan Chan JW, Li AM, Wing YK. Eveningness chronotype, insomnia symptoms, and emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents. Sleep Med. 2018; 47:93-99
Staner L. Sleep and anxiety disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2003; 5(3):249-58.
Zhang W, Si LY. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and hypertension: pathogenic mechanisms and possible therapeutic approaches. Ups J Med Sci. 2012; 117(4):370–82.
Jennum P, Riha RL. Epidemiology of sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome and sleep-disordered breathing. Eur Respir J. 2009; 33(4):907-14.
Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Skatrud J, Weber S, Badr S. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328:1230–1235.
Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Ten Have T, Rein J, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A. Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in women: effects of gender. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001; 163:608–613
Bearpark H, Elliott L, Grunstein R, Cullen S, Schneider H, Althaus W, Sullivan C. Snoring and sleep apnea: a population study in Australian men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;151:1459–1465
Ip MS, Lam B, Lauder IJ, Tsang KW, Chung KF, Mok YW, Lam WK. A. community study of sleep-disordered breathing in middle-aged Chinese men in Hong Kong. Chest. 2001;119:62–69.
Ip MS, Lam B, Tang LC, Lauder IJ, Ip TY, Lam WK. A community study of sleep-disordered breathing in middle-aged Chinese women in Hong Kong: prevalence and gender differences. Chest. 2001;125: 127–134.
Kim J, In K, Kim J, You S, Kang K, Shim J, Lee S, Lee J, Lee S, Park C, et al. Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in middle-aged Korean men and women. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004; 170: 1108–1113.
Udwadia ZF, Doshi AV, Lonkar SG, Singh CI. Prevalence of sleepdisordered breathing and sleep apnea in middle-aged urban Indian men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004; 169:168–173.
Sharma SK, Kumpawat S, Banga A, Goel A. Prevalence and risk factors of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in a population of Delhi, India. Chest. 2006; 130:149-56.
Modesti-Vedolin G, Chies C, Chaves-Fagondes S, Piza-Pelizzer E, Lima-Grossi M. Efficacy of a mandibular advancement intraoral appliance (MOA) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in pediatric patients: A pilot-study. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2018; 23(6):e656–e663.
Haviv Y, Benoliel R, Bachar G, Michaeli E. On the edge between medicine and dentistry: review of the dentist's role in the diagnosis and treatment of snoring and sleep apnea. Quintessence Int. 2014; 45(4):345-53.
Schwarz EI, Puhan MA, Schlatzer C, Stradling JR, Kohler M. Effect of CPAP therapy on endothelial function in obstructive sleep apnoea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology. 2015; 20(6):889–5.
Mbata G, Chukwuka J. Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. Ann Med Health Sci Res.2012; 2(1):74-7.
Reichmuth KJ, Austin D, Skatrud JB, Young T. Association of sleep apnea and type II diabetes: A population-based study. Am J RespirCrit Care Med. 2005; 172(12):1590–1595
Latorre C, Escobar F, Velosa J, Rubiano D, Hidalgo-Martinez P, Otero L. Association between obstructive sleep apnea and comorbidities with periodontal disease in adults. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2018; 22(3):215–220.
Ruehland W, Rochford P, O'Donoghue F et al. The new AASM criteria for scoring hypopneas: impact on the apnea hypopnea index. Sleep.2009; 32:150-7
Kumar HV, Schroeder JW, Gang Z, Sheldon SH. Mallampati score and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2014; 10(9):985–990.
Alencar e Rangel AJ, Barros VM, Seraidarian PI. Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea syndrome: A reflection on the role of Dentistry in the current scientific scenario. Dental Press J Orthod.2012; 17(3): 58-63.
Ruangsri S, Jorns TP, Puasiri S, Luecha T, Chaithap C, Sawanyawisuth K. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives. Nat Sci Sleep. 2016; 8:215–219.
Kale SS, Kakodkar P, Shetiya SH. Assessment of oral findings of dental patients who screen high and no risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) reporting to a dental college - A cross sectional study. Sleep Sci. 2018; 11(2):112–117.
Doneh B. Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Occup Med. 2015; 65(6):508-512.
Netzer N, Stoohs R, Netzer C, et al. Using the Berlin Questionnaire to identify patients at risk for the sleep apnea syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1999; 131:485-91.
Chung F, Yegneswaran B, Liao P et al. STOP questionnaire: A tool to screen patients for obstructive sleep apnea. Anesthesiology. 2008; 108:812-21.
Jaradat M, Rahhal A. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Prevalence, Etiology & Role of Dentist & Oral Appliances in Treatment: Review Article. Open Journal Of Stomatology. 2015;5:187-201
Epstein E, Kristo D, Strollo Jr P. Clinical Guidelines for the Evaluation, Management and Long-term Care of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5:263-79.
Gay P, Weaver T, Loube D et al. Evaluation of positive airway pressure treatment for sleep related breathing disorders in adults. Sleep. 2006; 29:381-401.
Veasey S, Guilleminault C, Strohl K et al. Medical therapy for obstructive sleep apnea: a review by the Medical Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Task Force of the Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sleep. 2006; 29:1036-44.
Lye K, Waite P, Meara D et al. Quality of life evaluation of maxillomandibular advancement surgery for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. J Oral Maxillofacial Surgery. 2008; 66:968-72.
Rivlin J, Hoffstein V, Kalbfleisch J, McNicholas W, Zamel N, Bryan AC. Upper airway morphology in patients with idiopathic obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1984; 129(3):355-60.
Kushida CA, Morgenthaler TI, Littner MR, Alessi CA, Bailey D, Coleman J Jr et al. American Academy of Sleep. Practice parameters for the treatment of snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea with oral appliances: an update for 2005. Sleep. 2006; 29(2):240-3.
Barthlen GM, Brown LK, Wiland MR, Sadeh JS, Patwari J, Zimmerman M. Comparison of three oral appliances for treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Med. 2000; 1(4):299-305
Addy N, Bennett K, Blanton A, Dort L, Levine M, Postol K, Schell T, Schwartz D, Sheats R, Smith H. Policy statement on a dentist’s role in treating sleep-related breathing disorders. Journal of Dental Sleep Medicine. 2018; 5(1):25–26
Maspero C, Giannini L, Galbiati G, Rosso G, Farronato G. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a literature review. Minerva Stomatol. 2015; 64(2):97-109.
Shah N, Bang A, Bhagat A. Indian research on sleep disorders. Indian J Psychiatry. 2010;52(1):S255–S259.
Sri Meenakshi R B, Senthil Kumar K P, Prabhakar K. Evaluation of awareness of issues regarding obstructive sleep apnea and the orthodontist role in management: A survey among dental and medical practitioners. J Indian Acad Dent Spec Res. 2016; 3:43-6
Vigg A, Vigg A, Vigg A. Awareness of issues related to sleep disordered breathing amongst practicing physicians. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2005;47(1):25-9.