Assessment of Sleep Habits and Quality of Sleep among Elderly Residing in Rural Areas of Patiala: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Survey

  • Yashika Kaushal
  • Ratibha Kaushal
  • Isha Sharma
  • Sheenab Mittal
Keywords: Sleep, Elderly, Insomnia


INTRODUCTION: Among the elderly, sleep problems are quite prevalent and can lead to many adverse health consequences. AIM: To assess the quality of sleep among the elderly residing in rural population and factors related to it, and provide necessary recommendations for its prevention. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, elderly aged above 60 years residing in Patiala were taken and were interviewed separately using the modified version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which was pre-tested and pre-validated prior to commencement of the study. Data recorded was divided into seven components and each component had an individual range of 0 (no difficulty) to 3 (severe difficulty) points and added to obtain a combined score of the individual with a range of 0(no difficulty)-21(severe difficulty) points. Based on the combined score,  elderly obtaining a total score of 5 or greater was classified as having  “poor sleep quality”. Statistics were applied using SPSS version 22.0, using the student’s t- test, and multivariate analysis. A p value < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: Out of 108 elderly people, most of the participants (62.9%) belonged to the age group of 60-75 years, out of which the majority (65.7%) were males. Most elderly reported having “fairly good” subjective sleep quality (53.7%, p=0.01) and was found to be significant with a global PQSI score of 7.22±4.31. Multivariate analysis revealed that significant “poor sleep quality” was observed in elderly aged above 75 years (OR:1.25, p=0.01) followed by elderly who were Immobilized (wheelchair/Bed ridden) (OR: 1.87, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: Efforts should be directed towards proper education of not only the elderly, but their children as well as colleagues and guardians to improve the sleep score of the elderly population.


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Author Biographies

Yashika Kaushal

MBBS, Presently Clinical Observer, International Medical Graduate, Unit Number 322,  Building Number 8068,  120 A Street, Surrey,  British Columbia, Canada, Postal Code-V3W3P3

Ratibha Kaushal

MBBS, International Medical Graduate, British Columbia, Canada

Isha Sharma

Private Practitioner, Patiala, Punjab, India

Sheenab Mittal

Third Year Junior Resident, Department of Pathology, Govt. Medical College and Rajendra Hospital, Patiala, Punjab, India


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DOI: 10.26440/IHRJ/0507.10466
Published: 2021-10-30
How to Cite
Yashika Kaushal, Ratibha Kaushal, Isha Sharma, Sheenab Mittal. Assessment of Sleep Habits and Quality of Sleep among Elderly Residing in Rural Areas of Patiala: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Survey. IHRJ [Internet]. 2021Oct.30 [cited 2023Feb.1];5(7):OR1-OR4. Available from: