Assessment of Micronuclei Frequency in Individuals with a Habit of Tobacco Chewing by Means of Exfoliated Oral Buccal Cells
INTRODUCTION: Majority of cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage resulting in poor prognosis and survival rates among patients. Hence early diagnosis of oral cancers seems to be the need of the hour. Analysis of exfoliated buccal cell micronuclei (MN) is a sensitive method of monitoring genetic damage.
AIM: The present study has been carried out with an objective to evaluate the genotoxic effects of tobacco chewing by means of micronucleus assay in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa.
MATERIALS AND METHOD: This cross sectional study was carried out in Department of Oral Pathology, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital And Dental College, Golpura, Barwala, Panchkula. The study population comprised of a total of 50 subjects, divided into five groups: Group 1comprising of 10 age and sex matched healthy subjects without any habits as controls, Group 2 comprising of 10 subjects with a history of chewing tobacco. Group 3 comprising of 10 subjects with a history of chewing tobacco and cigarette smoking, Group 4 comprising of 10 subjects with a history of chewing tobacco and drinking and Group 5 comprising of 10 subjects with a history of chewing tobacco, smoking and drinking. Oral exfoliated cells were obtained from buccal mucosa of the subjects, slides were prepared from each subject stained with stain respectively.
RESULTS: The mean numbers of micronuclei in group 1 were 7.86±6.7, Group 2 were 63.37±10.01, Group 3 were 65.49±12.32, Group 4 were 68.22±11.11 and Group 5 were 69.43±10.71. On comparison we observed that the difference in Mean micronuclei frequency among all the 5 study groups came to be statistically also highly significant (p<0.0001*)
CONCLUSION: Micronuclei assay is an effective tool that reflects severity of disease. Even though tobacco induced cancers are preventable, banning the use of tobacco has not been possible for social and political reasons.
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