Demographic and Clinical Profile of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Retrospective Study
BACKGROUND: Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder which is irreversible in nature and has high morbidity and high malignant transformation rate and hence demands focus on prevention of the disease at population and individual level. AIMS: Assessment of risk factors and the role of habit variables such as duration and frequency in the severity of OSMF and to ascertain the association of gender predilection for different habits and severity of OSMF. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This descriptive retrospective study of 1801 OSMF patients was carried out at the Dental hospital in the rural population of Gwalior region. The clinicodemographic data including details of habits was collected for a period of 5 years, from January 2016 to December 2021. Collected data was analysed using Systat version 12 software. RESULTS: The average age of the patient in the study was 32.8 years, with 16.5:1 M:F ratio. Significantly higher proportions of females (69.6%) were illiterate and belonged to low socioeconomic status. There was a statistically significant increase for areca nut chewing (OR=0.135(0.054-0.342), P < 0.0001), gutkha chewing (OR=22.32(10.421-47.817), P < 0.0001), tobacco chewing (OR= 0.111(0.04-0.308), p<0.0001), smoking habits (OR=30.791(7.472-126.89), P < 0.0001) and alcohol (OR=12.692(3.077-52.347, p < 0.0001) in males when compared with females. The maximum patients were seen in stage II (37%) and stage III (34%), followed by stage I (18.73%) and stage IV (10.3%) and the severity of OSMF was more in subjects who had the habits for longer duration. CONCLUSION: There was a definite gender predilection for various habits and their variables (frequency, duration), educational and socioeconomic status, clinical features and disease severity. Significant correlation was also found between habit variables (duration, frequency) and severity of the disease.
Pindborg JJ, Sirsat SM. Oral submucous fibrosis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1966;22(6):764–79.
Ahmad MS, Ali SA, Ali AS, Chaubey KK. Epidemiological and etiological study of oral submucous fibrosis among gutkha chewers of Patna, Bihar, India. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2006;24(2):84–9.
More CB, Das S, Patel H, Adalja C, Kamatchi V, Venkatesh R. Proposed clinical classification for oral submucous fibrosis. Oral Oncol. 2012;48(3):200–202.
More CB, Rao NR. Proposed clinical definition for oral submucous fibrosis. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res. 2019;9(4):311–314.
Vinay K Hazarey, Aditee R Sakrikar, Sindhu M Ganvir Efficacy of curcumin in the treatment for oral submucous fibrosis ‑ A randomized clinical trial Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Vol. 19 Issue 2 May - Aug 2015
Kerr AR, Warnakulasuriya S, Mighell AJ, Dietrich T, Nasser M, Rimal J, et al. A systematic review of medical interventions for oral submucous fibrosis and future research opportunities. Oral Dis. 2011;17(1 Suppl 1):42–57.
Khanna JN, .Andrade NN. Oral submucous fibrosis: a new concept in surgical management: Report of 100 cases International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Volume 1995;24(6):433-9.
Rao NR, Villa A, More CB. Oral submucous fibrosis: a contemporary narrative review with a proposed inter-professional approach for an early diagnosis and clinical management J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020;49:3
Pindborg JJ, Kalapesi ILK, Kale SA, Singh B, Taleyarkhan BN. Frequency of oral leukoplakia and related conditions among 10,000 Bombayites. Preliminary Rep, J Ind Dent Assoc. 1965;37:228–229.
Pindborg JJ, Chawla TN, Misra RK, Nagpaul RK, Gupta VK. Frequency of oral carcinoma, leukoplakia, leukokeratosis, leukoedema, sub mucous fibrosis and lichen planus in 10,000 Indians in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. India Preliminary J Dent Res. 1965;44(3):61
Pindborg JJ, Bhat M, Devnath KR, Narayan HR, Ramchandra S. Frequency of oral white lesions in 10,000 individuals in Bangalore, South India, preliminary report. Ind J Med Sci. 1966;2:349–52.
Kiran K, Saraswathi TR, Rangnathan K, Devi Uma M, Joshua E. Oral submucous fibrosis: A clinico-histopathological study in Chennai. Indian Journal of DentalResearch 2007;18(3):106-11.
Pindborg JJ, Mehta FS, Gupta PC, Daftary DK. Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis among 50,915 Indian villagers. Brit J Cancer. 1968;22:646–654.
Srivastava A, Agarwal R, Chaturvedi TP, Chandra A, Singh OP. Clinical evaluation of the role of tulsi and turmeric in the management of oral submucous fibrosis: A pilot, prospective observational study. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2015;6:45-9
Biradar SB, Munde AD, Biradar BC, Shaik SS, Mishra S. Oral submucous fibrosis: A clinico-histopathological correlational study. J Can Res Ther 2018;14:597-603
Sinor PN, Gupta PC, Murti PR. A case-control study of oral submucous fibrosis with special reference to the etiologic role of areca nut J Oral Pathol Med. 1990;19(2):94-8.
Seedat HA, Vanwyk CW. Betelnut chewing and sub mucous fibrosis in Durban. South Africa Med J. 1988;74(3):568–71.
Hazarey VK, Erlewad DM, Mundhe KA, Ughade SN. Oral submucous fibrosis: study of 1000 cases from central India, J Oral Path And Med.2007;36(1):12-7.
Patil PB, Bathi R, Chaudhari S. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: a cross-sectional study in South India. J Fam Community Med. 2013;20(2):130–5.
Shah B, Lewis MAO, Bedi R. Oral submucous fibrosis in a 11-year-old Bangladeshi girl living in the United Kingdom. British Dental Journal. 2001;191(3):130–2.
Shaiu YY, Kwan H. W. Submucous fibrosis in Taiwan. Oral Surg 1979;47(5):453-7.
Shiau YY, Kwan HW. Submucous fibrosis in Taiwan. Oral Surg. 1979;47(5):453–7.
Ramanathan, K., Dharmalingam, S.K. and Perdaman Singh. (1975) Frequency of Precancerous Conditions in 75 Malaysian Oral Cancer Patients. Mal.]. Surg. 1, 29 - 38.
McGurk M, Craig GT (1984) OSMF- Two cases of malignant transformation in Asian immigrants to the United Kingdom. British Journal Oral Maxillofacial surgery : 22:56-64.
Jay R, Kannan R, Amit C. Malignant Transformation of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: Overview of Histopathological Aspects. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology 2016;122(2):200-9.
Copyright (c) 2022 Moin Iftikhar Shapoo et al.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.