A Systematic Review on Sleep Related Disorders and Periodontal Disease

Keywords: Sleep Related Breathing Disorders (SRBDS), Obstructive Sleep Apnea(OSA), Epsworth Sleepiness Scale(ESS), Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), Polysomnography (PSG)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis has been implicated in many systemic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, stroke, Obesity, Kidney disorders. Recent scientific evidence has revealed a relationship between sleep related breathing disorders (SRBDs) and periodontal diseases. There has been a recent scientific evidence on population based studies reflecting an association between periodontal diseases and OSA. 

AIM: The tenet of the study was to find out interconnect between obstructive sleep apnea and periodontal disease.

METHODS: A systematic review of clinical trials assessing the relationship between OSA and periodontitis was carried out. An electronic search based on internet search sites (From 2000-2016) by PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, Google scholar, CINAHL, and Web of Science (WoS) were used. Studies which met the inclusion criteria were further analysed to find out the outcome of the study.

RESULTS:  A total of 174 potentially qualifying studies were screened. Out of them 10 studies  fulfilled the inclusion criteria which were further analysed. In our study 10 studies (2000-2016) from Jordan, Tokyo, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, India, USA, South Korea, Taiwan, Australia were shortlisted. Out of them 5 were cross sectional studies, 4 were case control, and 1 was meta-analysis. The sample size in the studies ranged from 66 to 30,120 adult falling in age range of 18 to 75.  The indicators for OSA used were as positive Epsworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Berlin Questionnaire, STOP-bang questionnaire, Apnea-Hypopnea index, Polysomnography (PSG). And the indicators for periodontal disease were Plaque index (PI), Clinical attachment level (CAL), Pocket Probing Depth (PPD), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI). Majority of studies showed positive correlation between OSA and periodontal disease.

CONCLUSION: Recent evidence and literature suggests that there exist a strong  interconnect between OSA and periodontal disease. Dentist play a pivotal role in diagnosis and timely management of OSA cases so as to halt progression of sleep apnea and periodontitis.

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Author Biographies

Rahul Kumar

MDS, Periodontist & Implantologist (Private Practitioner)

Rupali Kalsi

Reader, Department of Periodontics, ITS Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre, Greater Noida

Stuti Gupta

Lecturer, Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, Sharda University

Neetika Gupta

PG Student, Department of Periodontics, ITS Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre, Greater Noida

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Published
2019-11-23
How to Cite
Rahul Kumar, Rupali Kalsi, Stuti Gupta, & Neetika Gupta. (2019). A Systematic Review on Sleep Related Disorders and Periodontal Disease. International Healthcare Research Journal, 3(8), 250-259. https://doi.org/10.26440/IHRJ/0308.11303